The history of India written during the colonial era begins with the Indus Valley Civilization. When this civilization declined, Aryans had invaded or migrated to India who wrote Vedas.

In fact, we do not have any chronological history before 500 BCE that’s what modern historians and archaeologists record. But the advanced research based on archaeological, archaeo-astronomical, and literary evidence suggests otherwise.

India’s history is continuous since the beginnings of the Holocene and we Indians proudly call our history ITIHASA… The word itihAsa splits as iti-ha-Asa and means thus-verily-happened.

Vedic, Post-Vedic, Itihasa, and Purana texts record history – just in a form that is different than what is now considered to be the norm.

Today, the definition of History is that which was introduced into India by the Colonial historians who just doubted our antiquity without evidence.

Much prior to that, the Rishis recorded chronological and genealogical history so that future generations could benefit from its learnings.

Let us scientifically explore our chronological antiquity. It may be difficult to say when humans settled down in the Indian peninsula but the catastrophic eruption of the Toba Volcano of Sumatra, Indonesia had wiped out the humanity, flora, and fauna of India 75000 years ago.

Toba’s erupted mass deposited an ash layer of about 15 centimeters thick over the whole of India.

The archaeological site of Jwalapuram in Kurnool district has evidence of human habitation before and after the event of the Toba eruption.

Possibly, only a few people living in the hills of Kashmir and the Hindu-Kush range might have survived.

Gradually, North-western and North India became habitable. Thus, the Sapta-Sindhu region and Sarasvati River became the cradle of Vedic civilization.

The archaeological findings of early agriculture on the banks of Lahuradewa Lake in eastern UP have been carbon-dated from 13000 BCE to 7300 BCE.

This sunken ancient city of the Gulf of Cambay was indeed the city of Dvaravati which was built by Vishvakarma around 11100 BCE and it was submerged by sea around 9400-9300 BCE – at the end of Meltwater Pulse 1B around 10200-9400 BCE.

A piece of a carbonized wooden sample of this Dvaravati city has been dated around 7500 BCE.

A submerged structure of the ancient Poompuhar city in Tamil Nadu has been dated around 9500 BCE. The archaeological site of Bhirrana in Hisar has also been dated 7570 BCE.

Mehrgarh farming sites near Bolan Pass, Pakistan are dated 7000 BCE. The famous Rakhigarhi site of Haryana is dated 6500 BCE.

Based on the Archaeo-astronomical evidence, Brahma can be dated in 14500 BCE because he introduced a five-year Yuga calendar when Summer solstice used to occur in Dhaniṣṭhā

Nakśatra around 14500 BCE. After 1000 years, Vishvamitra observed the summer solstice at Śravaṇa Nakśatra around 13500 BCE as mentioned in Mahabharata.

This phenomenon is called the Precession of equinoxes. The gradual shifting of the orientation of Earth’s axis of rotation in a cycle of approximately 26000 years.

Earth’s precession is called the precession of the equinoxes, because the equinoxes moved westward along the ecliptic relative to the fixed stars, opposite to the yearly motion of the Sun along the ecliptic.

Thus, the equinox or solstice shifts one nakshatra (13.2 degrees) westward in 960 years. Numerous references found in post-Vedic literature indicate the shifting of winter solstice from Mrigashira to Rohini.

The Vedic legend of Prajapati Daksha and his 27 daughters clearly indicates the Mrigashirādi list of 28 Nakshatras which also coincides with the beginning of Vaivasvata Manvantara around 11200 BCE.

The winter solstice was at Mrigashira nakshatra around 11200-10200 BCE and the same was at Rohini nakshatra around 10200-9200 BCE.

The winter solstice was at Krittika nakshatra around 9200-8200 BCE and the list of nakshatras had been reset starting from Krittika nakshatra.

Most of the Brahmanas and Aranyakas were finally compiled when the winter solstice was at Krittika nakshatra.

The list of Nakshatras was again reset starting from Ashvini Nakshatra when the winter solstice had shifted to Ashvini nakshatra around 7200 BCE.

Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa indicates that Devas and Asuras were in a major conflict when Abhijit (Vega) was a pole star around 12000-11300 BCE and it refers to the star Kaśyapa i.e. Gamma Draconis of the Śiśumāra constellation which was at celestial pole starting from 11000 BCE.

It was still a pole star around 8800-8700 BCE. Tamil Sangam literature informs us that Rishi Agastya convened the first Sangam around 11250 BCE.

Star Canopus became visible around 11000-10000 BCE to the people living in Kanyakumari who named this star after Agastya. Kashmir valley was a glacial lake known as Satīsar during the Rigvedic period.

This glacial lake was formed during the period of Meltwater Pulse 1A around 12700-11500 BCE. The closed Varāhamūla (Baramulla) pass was holding the melted waters of glaciers.

Nīlamata Purāṇa relates that Kashmir Valley was a big lake and it became habitable in the Vaivasvata Manvantara.

Around 11200 BCE, incessant rainy weather followed a massive earthquake caused by an asteroid hit on earth might have opened up Baramulla pass and the water of Satīsar had flown out of Kashmir Valley which caused the great flood in Madra, Sindh, and Gujarat areas.

This devastating flood occurred during the reign of Vaivasvata Manu. Vedic Sarasvati River had originated at a Plakśa Prasravaṇa near Badrinath and flowed up to Prithūdaka or Pehova in Haryana.

Thereafter, Vedic Sarasvati took a south-western course from the Kurukshetra region and flowed from Hisar, Sambhar Lake, Pushkar, and Jodhpur to Great Rann of Kachch.

Due to the massive earthquake in 11200 BCE, Sarasvati changed the course and started flowing westwards from Kurukshetra, Sirsa to Kalibanga and Anupgarh.

Sutlej, Yamuna and Driṣadvatī were the main tributaries of Sarasvati. Sutlej changed the course around 14500-13000 BCE. IIT Kanpur has dated the paleochannel of Sutlej River in 13000 BCE based on the OSL method.

Yamuna and Driṣadvatī continued to be the tributaries of the Sarasvati River. The Yamuna had two channels in the Vedic period. One Yamuna channel flowed westwards and merged with Sarasvati, whereas another channel flowed eastwards and merged with Ganga River at Prayāga.

Seemingly, Y1 palaeochannel of Yamuna, a tributary of Sarasvati had changed the course around 11200 BCE. It appears that the Avabhṛtha ritual of Sarasvati Satra in the Yamuna might have been introduced to commemorate the past confluence of Sarasvati and Yamuna.

According to oceanographic studies, sea level suddenly rose 28m in 500 years, about 10000-9500 years ago. This accelerated sea level of 10000-9500 BCE has been named Meltwater Pulse 1B.

Most probably, Dvāravatī city in the Gulf of Cambay was flooded by the sea around 9400-9300 BCE, at the end of Meltwater Pulse 1B.

Seemingly, it took at least 1500 years to completely submerge the area of Dvāravatī city. Thus, the piece of wood found in the area of the sunken city in the Gulf of Khambat was submerged around 8000-7500 BCE.

Mayasura wrote Surya Siddhanta at the end of Krita Yuga when Sun, Moon, and all five planets were in great conjunction in Aries on the date of Chaitra Shukla Pratipada.

Computer simulations conclusively establish the date of Surya Siddhanta on 22nd Feb 6778 BCE, Sunday which would be the sheet anchor of our Yuga chronology.

A Yuga had only five years in the Vedic era but the duration of a Yuga and a Chaturyuga were increased from 5 to 1200 years and from 20 to 4800 years in 6777 BCE.

Later, the duration of a Chaturyuga was again increased to 12000 years considering the differential duration of four Yugas.

Ancient Indian astronomers further extended the duration of a Chaturyuga from 12000 years to 4320000 years (12000 times 360) to achieve accurate calendrical calculations.

The updaters of Purāṇas had erroneously deemed the increased calendrical duration of Chaturyugas as a given fact and narrated the chronological history of ancient India.

In fact, the duration of a Yuga was only five years before 6777 BCE and the epoch of the early Vedic Yuga calendar might have commenced around 15962 BCE.

In fact, the jovian cycle of 12 years, the sixty-year cycle, the Yuga of 1200 years, the saptarshi cycle of 2700 years were introduced in 6777 BCE.

Thus, we can fix the period of Tretā Yuga around 6777-5577 BCE and the period of Dvapara Yuga around 5577-3177 BCE.

It is traditionally recorded that Rāma was born in the last century of Tretā Yuga. Thus, Sri Rama was born on 3rd Feb 5674 BCE, in Punarvasu nakshatra when Saturn was on exaltation.

In Rāmāyaṇa, Lakśmaṇa describes the position of a comet and a planet in Mūla Nakśatra when the Vānara army was ready to march towards Lanka.

This astronomical observation is verifiable. Venus was in the Mūla constellation around 22nd Aug – 3rd Sep 5635 BCE and the Halley’s Comet had also entered Mūla Nakśatra on 23rd Aug 5635 BCE.

The apparent magnitude of 1P/Halley was 2.14 on 23 Aug 5635 BCE. It was visible to the naked eye after sunset between 23rd Aug and 23rd Sep 5635 BCE and it gradually faded away.

According to the studies of post-glacial sea-level rise, Sri Lanka had been connected with India through land route at least up to 6200 BCE.

The last pulse “Melt Water Pulse 1C” (MWP 1C) took place around 6200-5600 BCE, which produced a rise of 6.5 meters in less than 140 years.

Evidently, the area of Rāmasetu was submerged by sea during MWP 1C.

Nala might have raised the ground level maximum up to two meters to construct Ramasetu. The sea level of some places between Dhanushkodi and Talaimanar must be at least fourteen meters below the current level.

Thus, the Ramayana era can be dated around 5677-5577 BCE. The Aihole inscription conclusively establishes the date of the Mahabharata war in the year 3162 BCE.

In fact, the complex problems in Indian chronology arise from a misunderstanding of the epochs of ancient Indian eras. The Kurtakoti copper plate dated Saka 530 refers to a total solar eclipse that occurred on 9th May 53 BCE in Karnataka which conclusively establishes that the Saka era commenced in 583 BCE whereas the Sakānta era commenced in 78 CE.

Historians mistakenly mixed up these two epochs which led to a chronological error of 660 years. Out of two contemporary copper plates found at Pranaveshvara temple, Talagunda, one plate is dated in the Saka era whereas, another is dated in the Sakanta era.

Apart from this error of 660 years, later Jain historians inadvertently identified Ujjain King Chandragupta, a disciple of Bhadrabahu with the Maurya King Chandragupta which made Mahavira, a contemporary of Buddha.

In reality, Buddha attained nirvana 675 years before the year of Mahavira nirvana. Puranas and the Burmese inscriptions clearly indicate that Buddha attained nirvana in 1864 BCE.

Recent excavations at Lumbini and the radiocarbon samples collected from the Trench C5 at the center of the Buddhist shrine at Lumbini indicate the earliest date of 1681 BCE.

Thus, there is a chronological error of 1380 years in dating Buddha nirvana due to the mixing up of two different epochs of Saka and Sakānta eras and the mistaken identification of Chandragupta, the disciple of Bhadrabahu.

The dating of Buddha nirvana in 1864 BCE also validates the traditional date of Adi Sankaracharya in the 6th century BCE.

This entire research work of Vedveer Arya has been presented in two books: The Chronology of India: From Manu to Mahabharata and The Chronology of India: From Mahabharata to Medieval Era.

Since the change in date of Buddha nirvana affects the entire world chronology, the sheet anchors of western chronology have been discussed in the third book titled “The Origin of the Christian Era: Fact or Fiction”.

In fact, the European Christian scholars blindly assumed the epoch of 1 AD as the birth of Jesus Christ without presenting any independently verifiable evidence.

Therefore, this book argues that the epoch of the Christian era does not deserve to be the sheet anchor of world chronology. There is a genuine need to fix the western chronology up to Augustus without referring to the epoch of the Christian era.

The Venus tablet found in Babylon offers independently verifiable astronomical evidence but unfortunately, the world historians miserably failed to fix the exact date of the Venus Tablet.

The present research work formally claims that the riddle of dating Venus Tablet has been successfully solved that remained unresolved for the last 150 years.

Thus, the research work presented in the three books provides a complete solution not only for the chronological problems of India but also that of world history.

In reality, the internal archaeo-astronomical data of ancient Indian literature and the marine archaeological site of Dvāravati in the Gulf of Cambay conclusively indicate that India has a continuous chronological history since the last 16500 years starting from the time of Rishi Brahma and his son Svāyambhuva Manu.

Ancient Indian historical tradition painstakingly preserved the genealogical chronology but the increased Yuga durations in the Indian calendar led to the loss of true chronology.

This research scientifically re-establishes the chronology of India considering the epoch of Mayasura’s Surya Siddhanta and Krita Yugānta in 6778 BCE as the Sheet Anchor.

Amazingly, our motherland is not only the most ancient continuous civilization that had its origin in 14500 BCE but also a cradle of human civilization.

Let us reclaim our glorious past because a nation that gets delinked from history cannot create history.